When we asked about issues of concern last month, one of the items yacht captains and crew said they deal with in their careers is discrimination, so we decided to ask a little more about that in this month’s survey.
As service workers, yacht crew are often expected to be attractive and energetic as well as capable and skilled. It’s perhaps understandable when the owner wants pretty girls in the interior department, perhaps less so when he refuses a mate candidate because of the color of his skin.
Or is it?
The word discrimination has a negative connotation as the unjust treatment of one group compared to another. On land, it is often illegal. Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, according to the United Nations, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.
Is what happens in yachting discrimination?
In yachting, there appear to be reasons for the hiring decisions made. For example, a vessel may require the new chef to be a man simply because the only bunk available is in a shared cabin with the male bosun. Is that discrimination? Tough to say.
But a vessel may also only hire slender women because their uniform inventory is limited to sizes 2 and 4. Is that discrimination? Is it acceptable?
By asking the question, we don’t mean to judge. We meant merely to give captains and crew a forum for their thoughts and perhaps create some dialog. As you read the results this month’s survey, you’ll come to your own conclusions.
On land, discrimination most often revolves around issues of race, sexual orientation and religion, but when we asked Which criteria does your vessel use to eliminate potential candidates?, those three were the least likely factors used when hiring yacht crew.
The most common factor yachts use when making a hiring decision is smoking. More than two-thirds of the 185 captains and crew who took our survey this month said their vessels made hiring decisions based on whether someone smoked.
The next most common criterion was age, with about 62 percent saying this was a hiring consideration.
“Most owners want a handsome 26-year-old captain with 40 years of experience,” a respondent said.
Nationality was the only other item that more than half the responding captains and crew said their vessels base hiring decisions on.
The bulk of the remaining results applied to about a third of respondents, who said their vessels use gender (36 percent), clothing size (33.1 percent) and physical disability (or level of fitness, 32.6 percent).
Two other hiring criteria may be yachting-specific, including food preference (24.6 percent) and personal characteristics (12.6 percent). Among the “other” responses, most pointed out tattoos and weight, both of which could be included in provided response choices such as “personal characteristics” and “clothing size”, so those categories are likely larger than they appear.
“A crew is in constant change,” one respondent said. “It is important to put the best crew together so the owner and charter guests are looked after well by a crew that is in tight quarters and a crew that get along under pressure.”
One caveat: We neglected to ask our respondents basic information about themselves so we are unable this month to identify respondents by position or vessel size. Not having that data also made it impossible for us to cross reference responses based on age, gender or position onboard. We regret the omission.
We continued the survey with general questions about vessels by asking Has any vessel in your career ever required a certain type of candidate for a job, such as a male chef or a non-American mate?
The vast majority, 87.1 percent, said yes.
“This survey is so you can confirm what you already know,” said one respondent identified as a 13-year veteran. “It’s high-end hospitality; of course there is discrimination.”
When we asked for examples of these requirements, the bulk of them had to do with nationality or gender. Either one nationality was excluded (often noted as Americans for insurance reasons) or one was preferred (again, often noted as Americans for U.S. owners, captains or flags). Many respondents noted that some owners or captains preferred not to hire specific nationalities.
“Non-Americans are a regular issue with Med- or European-based insurance policies,” an American respondent said. “Most yachts I relieve on have to pay a premium to add me to the policy.”
“Won’t hire American crew, even though yacht is U.S.-owned but foreign flagged,” a respondent said.
“Onboard several yachts, we have not been able to hire above a certain number of Americans due to insurance purposes,” said another.
“Preference for American crew on some yachts, and preference for non-Americans on others,” a respondent said.
With gender, many of the examples were predicated on available accommodations or the traditional deck/interior split.
“Females can only perform on the inside; male deckhands can only perform on the outside,” a respondent said, citing the traditional assumptions of those making hiring decisions. “I think that males or females can do the same job if given a chance and training.”
“Many owners have only wanted to interact with attractive females; no men to be visible,” another respondent said. “The chef’s food tastes better because he thinks she is attractive, etc.”
“Due to crew accommodations, both deckhands share a room so we would not mix sexes in the sleeping arrangements,” one respondent said.
“I am a female captain and I constantly get gender discrimination,” this captain said. “It does not stop me but it’s very difficult to get around.”
One respondent noted that some gender discrimination might be preventative.
“Male chef preferred because the owner is not so nice so I do not want to expose someone unnecessarily to problems,” a respondent said.
Looks and physical ability play a role, too.
“I was told that I was too old for a captain’s position,” a respondent said.
“Owner was against tattoos,” a respondent said. “He believed that it is indeed about choice: If someone chooses to put a tattoo on their body in a place that cannot be hidden while wearing a uniform, it is his choice to not hire them.”
“Being told to let a stew go because she was a bit overweight or not pretty enough,” a respondent said.
And there are other reasons some owners and/or captains won’t hire someone.
“No football supporters,” one respondent said. “The captain was done with people who constantly watched and talked football. Wanted crew who actually had a love of ocean sports. I agree.”
Several respondents noted that eliminating candidates — for whatever reason — is merely a function of hiring. Given a pool of several candidates, a choice has to be made.
“Anytime a preference is expressed and a choice is made, one is discriminating,” a respondent said. “If we are honest, we have all probably been discriminated against and have been discriminating toward others at one time or other. Private, luxury yachting is, by definition, one of the most discriminating environments one can work in. If a yacht owner is not allowed to discriminate — that is, to have preferences as to who he or she wants to work aboard their private yacht — then where are they allowed to have preferences?”
“The yachting industry should not be compared to other forms of employment,” a respondent said. “It is the captain’s responsibility to first gauge the interests and preferences of the owner. This would happen at interview or shortly afterward. That way he would select rather than deselect the type of applicants the owner is looking for.”
When we asked <<BOLD>>Do you consider that sort of criteria-specific hiring to be discriminatory?<<BOLD>>, our respondents were torn. Slightly more than half (56.3 percent) said yes, it was.
“It should be stopped,” a respondent said.
“I’m a hard worker and I have the capacity to learn the same as the others,” another said.
“Each individual person should be assessed on their own skills, ability, personality and attitude, not ruled out because of a number, i.e. age,” a respondent said.
“Of course it is, but that’s the nature of the business,” a respondent said. “It is not our ‘right’ to work aboard someone’s private yacht; it is a privilege. If, however, we were chartering a yacht that was available commercially for hire, then that is a different thing altogether. This is where the line is crossed. If something is commercially available for hire, then discriminating for reasons other than inadequate or negative references is wrong.”
“Crew should be hired based on the ability and work history, not by some perceived notion that some nationalities are better crew members than others,” a respondent said.
“It’s discriminatory but after several bad experiences where the nationality appears to be the source, it’s easier to hire with discrimination,” a respondent said.
“Discrimination is alive and well,” a respondent said. “It is not actually a bad thing half the time. Could you imagine what a failure having an obese smoker sharing a cabin with Miss Trim-and-fit-and-healthy?”
“Money buys exactly what the owner wants and ethics, unfortunately, do not come into it,” a respondent said. “If the owner does not associate with a person, they’re paying and they usually make their thoughts known to the captain. Is this right or wrong? Of course it’s wrong, morally. But this, unfortunately, is the yachting industry and how it works. You have the same deal in five-star hotels, private house staff, private jet crew, etc.”
“Anyone willing and able can perform any position on a boat,” a respondent said. “The best mates on the sportfish I run have been women.”
“I can understand not wanting a smoker on board but age shouldn’t matter,” a respondent said. “If they can do the job and do it well, it shouldn’t matter. In fact, I would prefer a crew that is over 30 as there are fewer head games and much less drama/partying.”
“Of course, I’m American,” one respondent said. “I get passed over for daywork all the time.”
“It’s discrimination, period,” a respondent said. “Yachting is not different than other industries; we just think we are. There are no excuses — accommodations, owner preference, physical capability. It’s all bull—-.”
“I think it definitely is, but in yachting it seems to be pretty widely accepted,” a respondent said.
Still, nearly half said hiring for a specific criterion was not discriminatory, it is merely choice.
“Because sometimes money or owner requirements are very specific,” a respondent said.
“It’s a bit like casting a movie,” another respondent said. “Hirings should be approved by the producer (read captain), whatever the part requires.”
“Most decisions are driven by owner request and as long as it is not driven by skin color, who cares?” a respondent said. “People who want to be in this industry know what is required and should be able to navigate any type of possible discrimination. Bottom line: there is a vessel out there for every person, just maybe not the one they want.”
“It’s common sense, depending on sleeping arrangements and comfort zone of guests,” a respondent said. “Maybe the owner’s wife doesn’t want males cleaning her cabin. There’s potential trouble in very tight cabins mixing sexes.”
“If it’s what the owner wants, it can’t be discrimination,” a respondent said.
“Yachting is like a marriage or family,” a respondent said. “You don’t marry someone you’re not attracted to.”
“Well, there are three colors in Neapolitan ice cream and I chose my favorite,” a respondent said. “The same goes for who we mix with, right?”
“Owners have and are entitled to personal choices for crew,” a respondent said. “One must discriminate in some way to choose.”
Some hiring decisions are based more on finances than other factors and therefore may appear discriminatory. For example, a younger captain might command a lower salary than a veteran one. So we asked Do you feel there are valid reasons for excluding potential candidates for a position?
More than two-thirds said yes. Some reasons include:
“Prejudice by the owner of the yacht,” a respondent said. “It’s their yacht. Why should they employ someone they might be uncomfortable with?”
“Experience, attitude, appearance,” a respondent said. “Smokers and overweight people have a weakness of character and discipline.”
“Will they get on with the owner? Is their previous experience appropriate? Will they fit in with the boat and crew, socially, culturally or otherwise?” a respondent said.
“Experience is usually a foremost reason for all,” a respondent said.
“Personality, social skills, general intelligence,” a respondent said.
“Again, all [reasons] that were listed in question 1,” a respondent said. “All may be considered unfair, but this is luxury yachting. An owner has a right to hire people who fulfill his personal vision of how he/she wants their yachting experience to be. If that criteria is way off the wall, they may have difficulty finding and keeping people who fulfill it. So be it.”
“You have what you pay for, less experienced captain means higher insurance rates and more mistakes on the overall cost of the operation,” a respondent said. “It’s not a discriminatory issue; it’s a business decision.”
“If you can find two people that can do the same job equally as well and one of them I’d asking for less money, this would be favorable,” a respondent said. “If a candidate is younger and more enthusiastic, you will most likely choose them over an older person as you will have a chance to get better longevity and have more energy onboard.”
“If a boat has a budget and only less experienced candidates will take the wages being offered, that’s how the world works,” a respondent said. “You get what you pay for.”
“Excluding a candidate is how the hiring process works,” a respondent said. “I have had some difficult years with getting good work. That’s life.”
A few respondents didn’t accept any reasons for excluding candidates for jobs.
“The only reason candidates should be excluded is if they are not qualified or skilled to do the job,” a respondent said. “Personality also plays a part; they need to fit in with the existing crew.”
“Just because someone has more experience than other candidates doesn’t always mean that they are better,” a respondent said. “Longevity, to me, almost seems sloppy rather than valuable. I am new in the industry but I feel I am more desirable because I am really wanting to be here and learn and do my job to the best of my ability.”
“Advertise salary and allow all to apply,” a respondent said.
“For your example, (younger vs. older captain), it does not matter,” another respondent said. “The size of the boat should be the same price. For example, a 30m boat at 6,000 euros a month. If, then, an owner wants someone more experienced and wants to pay, so be it. All these young guys are doing is bringing the industry down, setting very bad and sometimes unsafe standards.”
“Some veteran captains, towards the end of their careers, might accept a lower salary for the right position,” a respondent said. “But if they are not even interviewed, who would know?”
Whether we consider hiring criteria discriminatory or not, we were curious to learn where they originated. So we asked <<BOLD>>Do you believe the owner influences hiring decisions by establishing some criteria for a new hire, or are hiring decisions left entirely up to the captain?
The largest group (38.3 percent) said the owner sets the criteria but the captain ultimately decides.
But the next largest group (27.1 percent) said it depended on the position.
About 20 percent of respondents said the owner has the final say in hiring.
Just 15 percent said the owner does not participate in hiring decisions at all.
Unfortunately, because we failed to capture vessel size data in this month’s survey, we could not examine these results more closely. It would have been interesting to see if those owners who are hands off are of larger vessels, and those who have the final say are of smaller vessels.
In retrospect, this next question was a bit redundant and perhaps naive, as one respondent gently pointed out. <<BOLD>>In your career, have you noticed that yachts use different criteria in hiring licensed crew (deck and engineering crew) compared to non-licensed crew (interior staff)?
More than three-quarters of respondents said yes.
When we asked <<BOLD>>In your opinion, how do those criteria differ?<<BOLD>>, most said licensed crew were often only considered for their experience and qualifications but that interior crew had to have experience, looks and personality.
“License equals qualifications; non-license equals attractive appearance and personality,” a respondent said.
“Only when the interior crew member was interviewed or on trial did we determine if they would be proposed for a position,” a respondent said. “Engineers would be employed on experience and qualifications, deck crew on physical ability and appearance.”
“By virtue of the licenses required for deck and engineering crew, I think there are different criteria,” a respondent said.
“An excellent 300-pound engineer would never work interior,” a respondent said. “There are Darwinian factors at play at sea.”
“For front of house, crew image is part of owner’s image,” a respondent said. “For engineering, for example, they prefer someone who actually looks like an engineer and not a pretty boy.”
“Licensed crew are more difficult to come by,” a respondent said. “If they hold the ticket and meet most other criteria, the one criteria they fall short on will likely be overlooked. Interior crew are easier to come by in the eyes of the owner, though not in the eyes of the captain.”
“To employ licensed crew, it is mostly about the level of their tickets, which can’t be overlooked,” a respondent said. “For example, engineers will be employed be their experience and education but not by their social skills as it is often the case where they do not have any and should not be put in front of guests. It can be the opposite for interior crew.”
“Appearance is traditionally far less a factor for the licensed (that is, ‘male’) part of the crew,” said a respondent.
“The hiring of interior crew nearly always involves consideration of age, size and appearance,” a respondent said.
“Looks, especially in females, seem to matter more than competence,” a respondent said.
“The experience-to-looks ratio needed for an interior position are extremely different compared to other departments,” a respondent said.
With the more general questions out of the way, we wanted to know if captains and crew have personally experienced what they might term discrimination. So we asked Do you feel as if you have ever been discriminated against as you sought a position on a yacht?
Nearly two-thirds said they had, and most of them said it was based on age or nationality.
“Though fit, I’m an older captain with many years of experience,” a respondent said. “However, there will be some who reject me before meeting me.”
“Despite a high deck license and 40 years experience in commercial shipping, I’m told I need to start as a deckhand on a yacht,” a respondent said. “Really?”
“Overqualification, even though the salary was acceptable,” a respondent said. “Maybe they were saying <<ITAL>>old?”
“Age and nationality, but who knows a lot of the time?” a respondent said. “All you get is the answer from crew agents of ”you do not fit the owner’s (racist) requirements.”
“A red-flag boat told me flat out they would not hire me simply because I was American,” a respondent said.
“Probably because of age, possibly because of looks,” a respondent said. “It happens all the time, whether we acknowledge it or not. This type of discrimination knows no bounds and does not apply to or target any one group of people. It applies to everyone from everywhere. Yacht owners should be able to set whatever standard they want for the people who work on their private yachts. If we try to legislate, impose or dictate who must be hired in the most private and discriminating environment on the planet, we will only succeed in driving more owners out. How stupid would that be?”
Not all those who feel they’ve been discriminated against for their age are older.
“Because of my age,” a respondent said. “The captain often referred to me and my partner as kids, which made us feel our work wasn’t respected and we also felt like we were looked down upon. We are not kids. We are adults and should be treated the same way as we treat them.”
“I was told that because I was green I would probably end up ‘getting drunk at Waxy’s and having sex in the bushes’,” a respondent said.
“I once went for a captain’s position and, at 42, was told I was too young,” a respondent said. “How cool is that?”
Other captains and crew noted that they felt they were discriminated for their gender, their appearance (especially their weight) and their level of experience.
“I am fat and I am pretty sure I lost a job when I met the owner after being approved by the management company, insurance company and also after several hours of telephone interviews with the owner,” a respondent said.
We were curious if those captains or crew who felt they were discriminated had any options, so we asked Did you do anything about it?
“I whined,” a respondent said.
“Yes, found another job,” a respondent said.
“No, just move on,” another said. “Yachts are private entities and as such they should be able to do more or less as they please. If I don’t like the policies, I just move on to where I am wanted, no offense taken.”
“Officially, no, but through determination, I went on to prove people wrong,” a respondent said.
“There is nothing you can do about it,” a respondent said. “Same with the junior crew or mates that have an obvious tattoo or piercing that a largely older generation of owners do not appreciate, or come from a country that the owner does not like or do business with. It is still a personal service industry, bought and paid for by individuals who have the right to refuse employment to anyone they see fit to for any reason they see fit to do so. Just because the U.S. and Europe have anti-discrimination employment laws in place does not mean I need to have just anyone sleeping under my roof. Would you expect an Arab owner to employ Hebrews, or a Hebrew owner to have Palestinians in his crew? These are extremely personal and private operations that can be staffed any way you see fit.”
“Ha, what can you do about it?” said the respondent who felt discriminated for being overweight. “No one would admit that was the reason, so it was tough luck.”
“What are you going to do?” said a chef who indicated an age in the 40s. “Even the crew agent threw their hands up in the air with frustration for me. She has known me for 20 years.”
“Not much to do about it but keep applying and responding to job posts and try to be more active networking with those who have connections,” a respondent said.
“Yes, I found a better boat,” said a respondent denied a job for being American.
“Of course not,” a respondent said. “There is no point in feeling sorry for oneself for not getting the job. Pick yourself up, dust yourself off and get out there and find the job that’s right for you. Forcing someone to hire you when you are not what/who they want is not the answer for either of you. Get over it.”
“Nope, and I never heard of anyone doing anything about it, either,” a respondent said. “What could you do without ruining your career forever?”
“Why would I be that guy?” a respondent said.
“Who will listen?” a respondent said. “No one cares.”
“I currently am ageing gracefully,” a respondent said.
In the midst of these well-known criteria used to eliminate candidates for jobs, we wondered Have you ever lied or tried to hide an aspect of who you are to get a job (for example, lied about smoking, hidden your tattoos, used only your initials to disguise gender)?
The vast majority — 86.9 percent — said no. One respondent noted it happens more than that statistic would suggest.
“If you have tattoos or smoke or are grossly overweight, don’t point out that the owners may have all of the above,” a respondent said “That does not mean they want to see your version of art or smell you. Sorry, but that’s the way it is. There are many other careers out there. Please consider them and quit hiding your tats and lying about smoking when you come for an interview. It wastes our time.”
Still, a few were honest enough to admit it.
“Presenting my CV with another nationality, I get the job,” a respondent said.
Not surprisingly, when we asked Do you think the yachting industry as a whole is discriminatory in its hiring?, most (81.4 percent) said yes.
And we were curious if things have changed much in this regard as yachting as a profession has matured, so we asked Do you feel that hiring practices in yachting today are more or less discriminatory than they may have been in years past?
The largest group at just over half the respondents said it is about the same. The remainder was pretty evenly split with 26.9 percent saying it discriminates more and 22.3 percent saying it discriminates less.
Our respondents left us with their impressions about discrimination in yachting.
“Yachting is discriminatory, but so is Hollywood,” a respondent said. “Over time, these barriers will break down as more diversity in the world brings more acceptance into the ‘classic’ yachting positions. Also, I do believe that each particular yacht has different specifications for crew as yacht owners are very colorful as well. What works for one yacht doesn’t necessarily work for the other, so discrimination comes in many categories and there are only so many jobs to be had. As long as crew agents and educational institutions encourage all highly motivated, professional, adventurous and energetic people from all walks of life to become part of the industry we will be top class forever. I personally can’t wait.”
“It has come a long way in even the last five years,” another respondent said. “More mid-to-low positions are opening up because it is the captain’s decision and captains are more open and see the value of the individual. However, it is still difficult at the captain’s level as no one is really there to support the captains who are being put forward.”
“I discriminate based on nationality,” another respondent said. “I’m not in a hiring position but will not work for an Australian captain, and will probably not join a vessel with an Australian mate or more than one Australian male crew.”
“What is complex is the dynamic of a successful crew that produces the required result to keep a wealthy (usually needy) individual happy in their own small space,” a respondent said. “The industry has come light years into the future just in the last decade from where it was at the turn of the century. As it has expanded and become more professional as well as regulated, it has drawn crew from more and more countries and races to fill the demand.
“NASA expanded to meet its needs for the Shuttle program as well, but was still extremely discriminating and for much more obvious reasons,” this respondent said. “Why should I not be just as discriminating when I take a number of individuals to sea with me (a dangerous place indeed) and the rest of the crew, or have them aboard to look after the owner and his safety and security? For example, tattoos and piercings are not a birthright; they are an option. So is uniform size at the end of the day. You have the option of what and how much to put into your mouth. If an individual does not even have the discipline to manage their own body weight, then they likely do not have the discipline I require of a crew-member aboard either. They will definitely not be able to perform at the level a busy charter boat requires, or in the heat of a Middle Eastern summer either.
“Gender is another issue that has its own pitfalls and stereotypes,” this respondent continued. “Often females are not strong enough to handle deck jobs. Just as often, males do not make good interior staff as they have not had the same socialization that most females have had that prepares them for that type of work. Licensed female engineers with a Y-1 are not that common at all and as such have a limited amount of experience all because, yes, they are still discriminated against. This is, I am sure, the same for female captains. But because there are fewer to choose from for starters, they are also likely to have a less experienced backgrounds. When competing with males who likely have more experience for the position, it becomes more difficult to compete. I have worked for women owners, have happily employed female mates and engineers and will continue to do so. I don’t personally care for most tattoos or piercings, and as such will continue to avoid crew that are not smart enough to avoid concealing them.”
“The yachting industry is the most discriminatory industry in existence, but if it bothers you, you should look for work elsewhere,” one respondent said. “On the other hand, if you are determined to work in yachting and have faced discrimination, perseverance and persistence will eventually find something suitable.”
“The world has become much too sensitive,” said another. “Work where you are wanted; move on if you are not. Simple really.”
“The nationality protectionism is the biggest problem and, from my point of view, a mistake,” a respondent said. “What is more interesting than a multicultural crew?”
“Hiring yacht crew has always been about that X factor,” a respondent said. “Owners or captains want a certain personality or dialogue with the crew and will hire based on what they feel gives them that X factor. I do not, however, feel that the X factor overrides people’s need to find well qualified crew, either licensed or not.”
“There are certain qualities inherent in different nationalities that make them better candidates in general,” one respondent said. “Every person is different but there are some generalities. If I am looking for a deckhand who is happy to work a long day, do a good job with menial tasks and take pride in their work, I will find a lot more Filipinos happy to take the job than I will find Americans. I look at officer positions, I find more qualified American or European candidates. This is not discrimination; it is fact based on 25 years experience in the industry. I wish I could say that there is an abundant supply of American deck and interior crew available who don’t behave like the actors on “Below Deck” but unfortunately, I can’t.”
“Discrimination is a very broad term,” another respondent said. “Yes, we look closely at potential candidates for all positions but we have to because of the nature of yachting. We can’t just fill a position with a warm body because it could cause problems with crew harmony and morale. At the end of the day, we all have to live together, not just work together.”
“Crew placement agents are often asked for a ‘cute, petite girl with experience under 24 years of age’,” one respondent said. “Experience is often not that young or pretty.”
“Discrimination is alive and well and a part of hiring process,” a respondent said. “Zero discrimination exists only in operations that are not successful.”
“This is a business of catering to the elite in their leisure time,” a respondent said. “Play the part or find a different career. (This comment applies to things that an individual can control like smoking, tattoos and piercings, not things like age, race, sexual preference, etc.)”
“Yacht captains and management companies are in a different position than land-based companies when it comes to employing staff,” a respondent said. “Due to the high level of work hours and close living conditions, crew must be chosen carefully to ensure that they all get along and are placed in a positive productive work environment. Therefore, it could be seen as being discriminatory, but it is necessary to achieve what they are paid for, otherwise they would fail at their job.”
“It’s the nature of the beast,” a respondent said. “I do not see hiring procedures changing in the upcoming years. They might get harsher as we get an influx of green yachties who don’t understand what the industry is about.”
“I will continue to discretely discriminate in my hiring process in accordance with what my owner has described as his preferences,” a respondent said. “To do less would not serve either of us. Every yacht, just like every company, has a culture. The difference is, a company exists to make money and it uses employees to achieve that goal. A luxury yacht is a private enclave that exists only to please the owner. The culture of the crew is reflective of the owner’s vision and the captain’s administration. It’s much like a Broadway play. The performance would never succeed without there having been an extensive casting call, followed by a “discriminating” audition and selection process, all geared toward producing the final vision. A most discriminating process, designed to produce a specific experience. Hmm, sounds familiar.”
Lucy Chabot Reed is editor of The Triton. Comments on this survey are welcome at email@example.com. We conduct our monthly surveys online. All captains and crew members are welcome to participate. If you haven’t been invited to take our surveys and would like to be, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org to be added.